Decoding Codependency: How Attachment Styles Shape Relationship Patterns

In the realm of relationships, codependency is a term frequently used to describe an unhealthy pattern where one partner becomes overly reliant on the other for their emotional well-being. However, the roots of codependency often trace back to early attachment experiences and the formation of attachment styles during childhood. In this article, we will explore the concept of codependency and delve into how different attachment styles can shape relationship patterns in adulthood. By understanding this connection, we can begin to unravel and heal unhealthy relationship patterns, empowering individuals to cultivate healthier, more fulfilling connections.

Defining Codependency:

To begin, let us establish a clear understanding of codependency. Codependency is a dysfunctional relationship dynamic characterized by excessive reliance on a partner for emotional support, validation, and identity. Codependent individuals often struggle with setting healthy boundaries, experience difficulty expressing their own needs, and prioritize their partner’s well-being over their own.

The Formation of Attachment Styles:

Attachment styles develop in childhood as a result of the interactions and experiences we have with our primary caregivers. These early relationships play a significant role in shaping our beliefs about ourselves, others, and how relationships should function. The primary attachment styles we will discuss in this article are secure, anxious, disorganized, and avoidant.

Anxious Attachment and Codependency:

Individuals with an anxious attachment style tend to have a fear of abandonment and seek constant reassurance from their partners. They often experience heightened sensitivity to perceived signs of rejection and may resort to clingy or possessive behaviors to ease their fears. This anxious pursuit of closeness and validation can contribute to codependent behaviors, as they may rely heavily on their partner to validate their self-worth and ease their fears of rejection.

For example, let’s consider the case of Susie and Mark. Susie, with an anxious attachment style, feels a constant need for Mark’s attention and reassurance. She becomes overly dependent on him for her happiness, often sacrificing her own needs and desires in an attempt to maintain the relationship. Meanwhile, Mark feels overwhelmed by the pressure to constantly validate Susie’s worth, leading to a cycle of codependency.

Practical Tip: If you identify with an anxious attachment style and struggle with codependency, it is crucial to develop a strong sense of self-worth and practice self-soothing techniques. Building self-esteem through self-care, pursuing personal interests, and seeking support from friends or a therapist can help alleviate the need for constant external validation.

Avoidant Attachment and Codependency:

In contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment style tend to be uncomfortable with intimacy and emotional dependency. They may prioritize independence and distance themselves from their partners emotionally, fearing the loss of autonomy or the potential for engulfment. This avoidance of emotional connection can create a dynamic where the other partner becomes excessively reliant, leading to codependency. However, there are also avoidant partners who will attach themselves in a codependent manner to a more emotionally effusive partner, and then refuse to leave, and/or prevent their partner from leaving the relationship, while still withholding emotional intimacy and connection.

Consider the example of Alex and Emily. Alex, with an avoidant attachment style, tends to withdraw emotionally whenever Emily seeks closeness or emotional support. This leaves Emily feeling neglected and desperate for connection, leading her to become increasingly dependent on Alex for her emotional well-being. This pattern reinforces the codependent cycle, as Emily’s neediness triggers Alex’s withdrawal, perpetuating a vicious cycle. However, whenever Emily tries to leave, Alex will become emotionally demonstrative, or act in a manner that makes it difficult for Emily to end the relationship.

Practical Tip: If you resonate with an avoidant attachment style and struggle with codependency, it is essential to develop healthy communication skills and work on building emotional intimacy gradually. Learning to express your needs, fears, and vulnerabilities to your partner can foster a sense of safety and trust in the relationship, without sending confusing mixed signals.

Disorganized Attachment and Codependency:

While the anxious and avoidant attachment styles are commonly discussed, it’s important to acknowledge another attachment style that can contribute to codependent behaviors: disorganized attachment, also known as fearful avoidance. Disorganized attachment arises from experiences of inconsistent or abusive caregiving during childhood, leading to a mix of anxious and avoidant behaviors.

Individuals with disorganized attachment often struggle with contradictory emotions and conflicting needs for both closeness and distance. They may have experienced parental figures who were simultaneously a source of fear and a source of comfort. As a result, they may exhibit unpredictable behaviors and have difficulty trusting others.

In romantic relationships, those with disorganized attachment may experience intense fear of abandonment and simultaneously fear intimacy. This inner conflict can manifest in codependent patterns where they desperately seek validation and closeness, only to push their partners away when they start to get too close.

For example, let’s consider Sarah and Michael. Sarah, with a disorganized attachment style, experienced neglect and occasional physical abuse during her childhood. As a result, she developed a deep fear of rejection and abandonment. When she enters a romantic relationship with Michael, she vacillates between desperately seeking his love and validation and pushing him away out of fear of getting hurt. This creates a turbulent and codependent dynamic, leaving both partners feeling confused and emotionally exhausted.

Practical Tip: If you recognize disorganized attachment tendencies and struggle with codependency, seeking professional help from a therapist experienced in attachment-related issues can be immensely beneficial. Therapy can provide a safe space to explore and heal from past traumas, address conflicting emotions, and develop healthier coping strategies and communication skills.

Secure Attachment as a Protective Factor:

Individuals with a secure attachment style generally have a healthier approach to relationships. They have a balanced view of themselves and others, are comfortable with intimacy, and can set boundaries effectively. Securely attached individuals are less prone to codependent patterns as they possess a strong sense of self-worth and are more capable of fostering interdependence in their relationships.

For instance, let’s consider Chris and Lisa. Both Chris and Lisa have secure attachment styles and value their independence while also enjoying emotional connection. They are supportive of each other’s individual growth and are capable of maintaining healthy boundaries. Their relationship is characterized by mutual respect, trust, and interdependence, avoiding codependent tendencies.

Practical Tip: If you have a secure attachment style, continue to prioritize self-awareness and open communication in your relationships. Actively nurture your emotional connection while maintaining a healthy sense of self and encouraging your partner to do the same.


Understanding the connection between codependency and attachment styles is crucial for unraveling and healing unhealthy relationship patterns. By recognizing how our early attachment experiences shape our behavior in romantic relationships, we can begin to cultivate greater self-awareness and actively work towards developing a healthier attachment style. Through self-reflection, therapy, and conscious efforts to establish and maintain boundaries, we can break free from codependency and create more fulfilling, balanced relationships.

Remember, the journey towards healthier relationships begins with self-awareness and a commitment to personal growth. By understanding the influence of attachment styles on codependency, individuals can take proactive steps towards developing a secure sense of self, fostering interdependence, and establishing healthier relationship patterns.

Briana MacWilliam is an author, educator, licensed and board-certified creative arts therapist & frequent teacher at AVAIYA

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